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Europe and Central Asia

Transitions and Time Lags: Understanding a Dispiriting but Temporary Phenomenon

Antonius Verheijen's picture


Having spent much of my working life working with and in countries in transition, it remains painful to watch the disillusionment that so often strikes people that had the courage to change a bad political situation, but then are forced to live through economic hardship. It is those that chose change that seem always to suffer most. But one source of hope is that, fortunately, this hasn’t stopped people from trying. This was true for Southern Europe in the late 1970s (though I was still in school at the time), Central and East European countries in the 1990s, several African countries in the 2000s and, as history has a knack for repeating itself, Tunisia today. 

The high toll of traffic injuries in Central Asia: unacceptable and preventable

Aliya Karakulova's picture

Did you know that in Kazakhstan we live in the country with the deadliest roads? Every year, 3,000 people die on roads in Kazakhstan, and over 30,000 are injured. Imagine if an airplane crashed every month! Would you fly?

We are 11 times more likely to die in a traffic accident in Kazakhstan than in Norway. Indeed, the numbers for road deaths are high in all Central Asian countries.

The High Toll of Traffic Injuries in Central Asia
Source: WHO, 2013


Globally, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among people aged between 15 and 29 years. Not cancer, not heart diseases, and not wars.

Life changing injuries and deaths affect countries in terms of health care and economic costs – the annual economic loss of road deaths in Central Asian countries is estimated at around 3-4% of GDP.

But beyond this monetary value, lies a person’s life. 

A glimpse into state financial institution ownership in Europe and Central Asia

Aurora Ferrari's picture

State-owned financial institutions (SOFIs) are back in vogue. Although the theoretical and empirical debate on state ownership in finance may continue to sway back and forth, the 2007–08 global financial crisis renewed policy makers’ interest in SOFIs as a policy instrument.

This interest is particularly visible in countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA), where policy makers have turned to SOFIs for countercyclical interventions, as quantitative easing appears to have little impact on economic growth; the cost of bailing out privately-owned financial institutions has mounted; and many countries face significant fiscal constraints. From the publicly-owned British Business Bank (established to assist smaller businesses), to the Investment Plan for Europe (the “Juncker Plan,” which relies on “National Promotional Banks” to intermediate resources from the European Fund for Strategic Investments), SOFIs have been used to fill perceived gaps or complement the public policy toolkit.

E-justice: does electronic court reporting improve court performance?

Georgia Harley's picture


More and more courts are going digital. But does this improve judicial performance?
 
Legal literature on ‘e-justice’ seems to think so. So too does the World Development Report, ‘Digital Dividends,’ which highlights the potential for ICT to improve the transparency and quality of government service delivery.
 
As electronic court reporting is one key aspect of this trend, we want to take the opportunity to look at the pros and cons of improving judicial performance in different contexts.

Lifting legal barriers on women’s employment: How it impacts Ukraine’s logistics and transport sector

Nato Kurshitashvili's picture
Roads in Ukraine

Of the 173 economies surveyed by Women, Business and the Law, about 100 economies restrict non-pregnant and non-nursing women from pursuing the same economic activities as men. These countries include quite a handful of economies of the former Soviet Union, which, despite their largely gender neutral legal framework, impose legal restrictions on women’s work, such as prohibitions on working in certain industries and/or working at night.

Adolescents, gender roles and intimate partner relationships in Moldova

Daniela Misail-Nichitin's picture
The Harmonious Family Relationships course is Moldova’s first, voluntary school-based intervention focused on the prevention of domestic violence

A recent study of 220 10th -12th grade students from the Republic of Moldova revealed that eight in 10 (both male and female) believed that a woman needed to know how to cook and enjoy cooking. When asked what they wanted most from an intimate partner, they spoke of physical aspects, how they looked. The teens also revealed that they believe that a girl who lives with a male partner before marriage is of easy virtue.

Water PPPs that work: The case of Armenia

Dambudzo Muzenda's picture


Photo: VahanN / Shutterstock.com 

Downtown Yerevan. Gusty winds, frosty air. Inside a hotel in the town square, cocktails and canapés, speeches and signatures. On this evening in November 2016, representatives of the State Committee for Water Economy (the Armenian water authority) and Veolia (a large international water operator) gathered to celebrate the signing of a new partnership: a 15-year national lease to provide water and wastewater services for the whole country. The lease began in January 2017, thus marking the start of a “second generation” of water PPPs in Armenia. Solid gains had already been made under the “first generation” between 2000 and 2016. At this crucial juncture, a World Bank study reviewed Armenia’s experience so far and analyzed the way forward under the new national lease.

Has job creation been accompanied by job quality in Turkey?

Ximena Del Carpio's picture


It is often said that job creation in growing economies sacrifices quality for quantity. Skeptics argue that job growth occurs in low-wage occupations and low-productivity sectors, are temporary in nature, and offer precarious conditions.

Such criticism was made in Turkey after the global crisis, when the country experienced rapid job creation and decreasing unemployment - from 12.58% at the peak of the crisis to 8.17% in 2012. 

As unemployment began to rise, the Turkish government put forward a comprehensive plan of incentives to catalyze job creation. But, while more jobs are being created in the formal economy today, a common perception persists that these are mostly poor-quality jobs. But is this perception accurate?
 

Building benchmarks for infrastructure investors: a long but worthwhile journey

Sarah Tame's picture


Photo: User 377053 | Pixabay

The Argentinian presidency of the G20 opens this month and will be marked by a focus on infrastructure investment. The G20 and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have already announced a widescale data collection initiative to create benchmarks to monitor the risk-adjusted financial performance of private infrastructure debt and equity investments.

It’s about time.

Investors have hit a roadblock when investing in infrastructure. Until now, none of the metrics needed by investors were documented in a robust manner, if at all, for privately held infrastructure equity or debt. This has left investors frustrated and wary. In a 2016 survey of major asset owners by the EDHEC Infrastructure Institute (EDHECinfra) and the Global Infrastructure Hub, more than half declared they did not trust the valuations reported by infrastructure asset managers. How, under such conditions, can the vast increases in long-term investment in infrastructure by institutional players envisaged by the G20 take place?


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