The World Region
If a trade economist were abruptly woken up by somebody shouting, “preferential trade agreements” (PTAs), their first thought is likely to be “trade creation among participants and trade diversion away from those left out.” That is a measure of the influence of Jacob Viner’s classic book The Customs Union Issue on the profession, on the policy debate and on our attitude towards PTAs.
Brexit and the renegotiation of NAFTA have renewed interest in the impact of trade agreements and the consequences of undoing them. In a recent paper, Mattoo, Mulabdic and Ruta (2017) and column (VOXEU), we use new information on the content of PTAs to examine their trade effects.
Is poverty absolute or relative? When we think of (one-dimensional) income poverty, should we define the threshold that separates the poor from the non-poor as the cost of purchasing a fixed basket of goods and services that allows people to meet their basic needs? Or should we instead think of it as relative deprivation: as earning or consuming less than some given proportion of the country’s average living standard?
The protection of real property rights and improving the efficiency of land and property markets are key pillars in a modern, well-functioning economy. Over the last 30 years, many countries have initiated programs to issue land titles for all properties, improve the performance of land administration services, automate land information systems, and integrate them with ongoing e-government and e-service programs.
The World Bank, often with other development partners, has provided more than $1.5 billion in grants, credit and loans to more than 50 countries to support the implementation of such programs. Other bilateral and multi-lateral development partners have also provided substantial funding and technical assistance to many countries.
Could a parent’s decision to vaccinate a child depend on a free bag of lentils? The premise seems implausible:immunization can be a matter of life and death, and a bag of lentils is worth only a dollar. Yet a randomized controlled trial in India showed that a gift to parents of a 1 kg bag of lentils and a set of plates can dramatically raise the percentage of children protected against major disease (Banerjee et al. 2010). Providing a quality immunization camp alone increased the percentage of fully immunized children from 6% to 18%. The addition of the lentil and plate ‘incentives’ raised the figure to a whopping 39%. How can we explain the outsize effect of a gift of everyday household items?
This blog is part of a series using data from World Development Indicators to explore progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and their associated targets. The new Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2017, published in April 2017, and the SDG Dashboard provide in-depth analyses of all 17 goals.
Goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Agenda for 2030 – Good Health and Well-being - explores a myriad of causes of ill-health and mortality, and hopes to improve the lives of many through its targets. Two recent blogs by the authors have focused on health during pregnancy and childbirth, and the prevention of some communicable and non-communicable diseases.
This blog turns its attention to other factors that impact people: mental health, alcohol and tobacco, and road traffic injuries and deaths.
Suicide rates are falling gradually in many parts of the world
Mental health is a focus of target 3.4, alongside other non-communicable diseases. Suicide accounts for 8.2 percent of deaths among young adults ages 15-29 globally and is the second leading cause of death after road traffic injuries for that age group.[i] Suicide rates for all ages tend to be higher in Europe and Central Asia and in high-income countries. In middle- and low-income countries, there has been a decline in rates since 2000.
Monday’s announcement of the 2017 Nobel Prize for economics, to Richard Thaler, for his groundbreaking work incorporating psychology into economic theory, was a victory not only for the University of Chicago Professor and co-author of Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness, but for behaviorally-informed policy worldwide.
Say you want a snapshot on digital entrepreneurship in Tunisia, or you are trying to understand tourism trends in Mexico. You'll probably need to identify 30-50 relevant indicators, dig up the data, create a presentable format, and hope that you have organized the report the way an expert well-versed in the topic might. Yes, it can be very difficult to put together a report that gives you reliably sourced, current, and properly structured information on the topic you are interested in.
Fear not — help is at hand! On TCdata360, we offer you country-level reports on demand on a number of topics (tourism, gender, entrepreneurship, investment climate … and the list is growing). All you have to do is to go to our Reports section (tcdata360.worldbank.org/reports), choose your country and topic, and you're done — the site will give you a beautifully laid out report that you can share online or print and take to your next meeting.
Introducing TCdata360's thematic reports
The TCdata360 platform (tcdata360.worldbank.org) is a new open data initiative launched by the World Bank, which provides quick access to over 2000 trade and competitiveness indicators from over 40 international sources.
We shared a few ideas about improving data access and usability with you in an earlier blog post and one demand that kept emerging was to help people make sense of thousands of cross-cutting indicators, and communicate these insights in a simple, portable way. One of the ideas we came up with are these on demand reports. We have worked with subject matter experts to curate TCdata360 indicators and visualize them within the constraints of a two-pager country thematic report that are relevant to both experts trying to quickly gather reliable data, and to beginners exploring new topics.
Last Wednesday, the World Development Report 2018, Learning to Realize Education’s Promise (WDR) was released. It argues that there is a learning crisis: in many developing countries, children learn very little, educational opportunities are unequal, and educational progress is still very slow. What do we need to change this? We need prepared learners, who receive adequate nutrition and stimulation in their early years. We need well managed schools that create an environment conducive to learning. We need adequate inputs so that schools can operate effectively. But above all, we need motivated and well-prepared teachers. In classrooms around the world, white boards and screens have replaced black boards and notebooks are increasingly commonplace. But in this 21st century, with increased use of technology, there is one constant that determines, more than anything else, whether children learn at school: teachers. Indeed, teachers remain central to the classroom experience. And yet in many countries, the teaching profession needs attention and reform.